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We study the traffic states and jams induced by a slowdown of vehicles in a single lane highway. We use an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the slowdown in a section of highway. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is calculated. Barbour Femme The flow (current) increases linearly with density, saturates at a critical density, and then decreases with density. When the flow Barbour Femme Ebay saturates, the discontinuous front (stationary shock wave) appears at the end of traffic jam which begins just before the section of slowdown. The position of discontinuous front moves to the upstream with increasing density. It is found that the relationship between the densities holds before and after the discontinuity, while the flow (current) keeps the saturated value. The region map of distinct jams is shown.
In this paper we introduce a comprehensive model for policy analysis of the greenhouse effect (PAGE). We apply the PAGE model to assess the merits of policies to prevent global warming (by controlling the emissions of greenhouse gases), and policies to adapt to any global warming that occurs. The results confirm that it is difficult to overcome the problem of global warming by taking preventive action alone. The argument for introducing an aggressive adaptive policy is very strong. We calculate the valuation that Barbour Manteau would have to be placed upon non-economic environmental and social impacts, for a combined strategy of preventive and adaptive policies to be considered a worthwhile option, both for individual regions and for the world as a whole. We also show that uncertainties in all four groups of inputs to the model (scientific, costs of control, costs of adaptation and valuation of impacts) have a great influence on the costs and impacts of the combined strategy.
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